One-toed Amphiuma

Amphiuma pholeter (State Status: S1; critically imperiled)


One-toed Amphiumas are found in a restricted range of the eastern Gulf Coast, and the western-most extent of its range includes southeast Mississippi (Powell et al., 2016). Their habitat is muddy, flowing water bodies. Amphiumas are long, dark-bodied, and eel-like with very small vestigial appendages. Amphiuma pholeter is the smallest of the amphiumas, and is also the least common. A single live specimen has been recorded in Mississippi by Grover Brown in 2016 ( One of the rarest and most secretive species of salamander in the state. 

One-toed Amphiuma, © Kevin Hutcheson

Identifying Traits

  • Dark long body with highly reduced limbs
  • Small, lighter-colored than other species, one appendage (not always)


Alluvial flowing bodies of water (Powell et al., 2016)


Ambush fish predator, rarely leaves water. 


Various small invertebrates, small fish

An individual found in South Mississippi, © Kevin Hutcheson